ABSTRACTS



The following is a list of the abstracts for papers which will be presented in the SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON POLYMER SURFACE MODIFICATION The listing is alphabetical by presenting author. This list is updated continually to add abstracts as they become available and make appropriate corrections. This list may be conveniently searched by using the editor provided with most popular browsers (e.g. Microsoft Explorer, Netscape, ... etc.)


K. Opwis, T. Bahners and E. Schollmeyer; Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e. V., Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld, GERMANY



Surface Modifications for the Control of Cell Growth on Textile Substrates



(Abstract not yet available)


Jeremy W. Bartels, Kenya T. Powell, Jinqi Xu, Chong Cheng, Karen L. Wooley*; Center for Materials Innovation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Radiology, Washington University in Saint Louis, Saint Louis, MO 63130



Adhesion of a Non-Adhesive Coating: The Use of PEGylated Hyperbranched Fluoropolymers as Surfaces with Unique Anti-Biofouling, Uptake and Release, and Mechanical Characteristics



Highly functional hyperbranched fluoropolymers crosslinked with polyethylene glycol (HBFP-PEG) yield nanoscopically-resolved amphiphilic copolymer networks with several unique properties. These nanoscale phase-segregated domains instill exceptional properties to the material, including low surface energy character, anti-biofouling qualities, atypical uptake and release of volatile guest molecules, and special mechanical properties. Several different generations of materials have been developed by either polycondensation or self-condensing vinyl (co)polymerization chemistries. There is a large amount of latent functionality on the resulting hyperbranched fluoropolymers, and it is through these groups that crosslinking with polyethylene glycol and adhesion to substrates takes place. This presentation will highlight advances that have been made with these materials throughout the last decade, with special attention to their many properties, along with discussion of their adhesion to glass substrates.



* To whom correspondence should be sent

Email: klwooley@artsci.wustl.edu

jwbartel@artsci.wustl.edu


R. Bongiovanni and A.Priola; Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Politecnico di Torino ITALY



Adhesion of Fluorinated UV-cured Coatings on Functionalised Polyethylene



In this work we modified the surface of polyethylene films in order to coat them with highly fluorinated UV-cured coatings and guarantee good adhesion between the layers. Different methods were investigated: a successful treatment was the grafting of a monomer containing a group able to give a homolytic cleavage under UV light. The surface modification was assessed by XPS analyses and AFM. The modified substrate was coated with a photocurable fluorinated formulation: after irradiation, a highly hydrophobic and oleophobic layer was formed which was strongly adherent to the polyethylene substrate.


E. Steven Brandt and Jeremy Grace; Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650-2022



Initiation of Atomic Layer Deposition on Polymer Surfaces by Plasma Pretreatment



Water plasma pretreatment has been employed to promote atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide from the binary reaction between dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) and water onto a variety of polymer substrates. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it is shown that water plasma treatment incorporates surface hydroxyl functional groups, which significantly enhance the deposition of aluminum oxide on poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) and the hydrophobic surfaces of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(propylene). By contrast, the intrinsic reactivity of the highly hydroxylated surface of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) toward repeated DMAI/water ALD cycles is not significantly enhanced by water plasma pretreatment. The data suggest that in the absence of inherently reactive surface functional groups (e.g., hydroxyl groups) to promote chemisorption of the metal-bearing precursor, water plasma treatment can be an effective means to initiate ALD growth of metal oxides on otherwise chemically inert polymer surfaces.


I. Hudec 1, M. Jaššo 1, M. Cernák 2, L. Cernáková 1 and H. Krump 1, †



1) Department of Plastics and Rubber, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, SLOVAKIA



2) Institute of Physics, Commenius University, Bratislava, SLOVAKIA



Adhesion Strength Study Between Plasma Polymerized Polyester Cords and a Rubber Matrix



In this work, the adhesion strength study between plasma polymerized poly(ethylene terephthalate) cords (PET) and a rubber matrix was investigated. Plasma was generated by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure. Among suitable gases, propane-butane with nitrogen admixture was selected as appropriate candidate for polymerization process. As a result of plasma polymerization a new non-polar layer has been created on the surface of the polymer. The plasma polymerization applied to the surface of PET cords decreases the surface energy of the polymer (46.4 36.7 mJ/m2) to match the range of surface energy attributed to rubber blend (32.8 mJ/m2). According to this, very good compatibility between PET and rubber matrix can be expected.



Substantial changes in morphology, as well as in chemical structure of plasma polymerized PET cords were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Contact angle (CA) measurements. As results, wishful increase of static and dynamic adhesion strength towards rubber matrix was observed.



† Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Arthur J. Coury; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts



Achieving and Verifying Tissue Adherence to Assure Performance of Hydrogel-Based Medical Devices



Durable, programmable adherence to tissue is warranted in hydrogel-based medical devices such as surgical sealants, tissue adhesives, skin electrodes, wound dressings and drug delivery systems. Appropriate tissue bonds can be achieved by several mechanisms. When fluid flow enables penetration of the adhesive into tissue interstices, mechanical "interlock" occurs. Pressure sensitive adhesives (which are fluids by definition) as well as in situ polymerized hydrogel forming compositions may accomplish this. Secondary hydrogel-tissue bonding interactions are based on coulombic and VanDer Waals forces and occur with intimate contact of the hydrogel with the tissue. Desiccated hydrogels provide such contact by swelling on moist tissue surfaces. Systems undergoing liquid to solid transformations as described above attain some of their bonding by this process. The most durable bonds are formed by covalent coupling of the hydrogel to the tissue which occurs by in situ chemical reaction. In some two part adhesives and sealants, one of the components reacts covalently with tissue as well as the other component. In our sealants, we use a very effective proprietary in situ bonding process employing a reactive primer over which a topcoat is chemically bonded.



Insights into the mechanisms and magnitudes of hydrogel-tissue bonding may be gained using mechanical bonding and visualization tests. To estimate mechanical strength of hydrogel-tissue bonds, we have adapted several of the testing methods of coatings and adhesives scientists. In addition, we have developed tissue-specific adhesion tests. Shear, peel and butt tensile specimens, aged in vitro in appropriate solutions provide useful quantitative values for initial and aged bond strengths. In a burst test, a tissue film with a defect is mounted in a jig, coated, hydraulic or pneumatic pressures are applied to failure and values are registered. Cyclic strain tests of hydrogel coatings over tissues such as lung pleura, pericardium and dura mater are amenable to subjective evaluation using post-aging "pick tests" by an experienced evaluator. We have also developed a needle pull-through test to determine bond strength of tough hydrogels to orthopedic tissues.



However appropriate the in vitro tests, performance of tissue adherent devices, especially implanted ones, must generally be studied by preclinical in vivo tests prior to clinical studies. Imaging histology slides from in vivo implants visualizes hydrogel-cell interactions including bonding characteristics, which can be followed over time. Scanning electron microscopy of explants is also valuable for producing magnified images of surface topography and hydrogel-tissue interfaces. With both foregoing techniques, effects of desiccation on dimensions during sample preparation must be considered.



Ultimately, adhesive performance of hydrogel devices must be verified in the clinic. Adherence testing on intact skin presents a minimal regulatory hurdle. For a skin electrode product, we employed a sauna-based test in which we were able to characterize human subjects as supporting high, medium and low adherence and qualified the product based on efficacy on the "low stickers." For implantable adhesives, clinical studies are more complex, occurring in phases and only rarely amenable to "second look" surgeries. In such cases, efficacy is studied by evaluating symptomatic relief of the pathologic conditions.

By studying bonding mechanisms and applying effective bonding techniques, we have developed several commercial hydrogel products as adhesion prevention barriers, surgical sealants and electrodes. Additional studies on tissue adhesives and fillers. Additional work on tissue adhesives and space fillers is underway.


Joseph DiGiacomo; Flynn Burner Corp., 12550 Lake Avenue, Suite 1703, Lakewood, OH 44107

joed@flynnburner.com



Adhesion Promotion Using Direct Flame Plasma Surface Treatment



This paper describes the theory behind natural gas, propane or LPG fired flame plasma surface treatment to promote adhesion of water based inks, coatings, adhesives, labels and other substrate laminates to polyolefin and metallic based substrates.



The critical parameters in flame treatment, flame chemistry, flame geometry & plasma output and distance of the burner to the substrate, will be presented. The interrelationship between the variables, and how to control them for optimum surface treatment, will be described.



The use of Schliren imaging technology to develop new burner designs, as well as advances in equipment technology will be presented.



Troubleshooting & maintenance of flame plasma surface treating systems will be discussed.


Michel Grisel; URCOM Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, F-76058 LE HAVRE Cedex, FRANCE



Polymer Surface Modification for Improvement of Adhesion Properties of Structural Composites Used in Aeronautics



For many years the aerospace industry has been using adhesive bonding techniques as an alternative to classical methods such as screwing or riveting. As bonding is used in a variety of applications for both composite and metallic materials, a good knowledge is required to choose suitable surface pre-treatment and optimize adhesive material application conditions.

In particular, in order to reach high performance, high care must be brought for surface preparation. Therefore numerous surface treatments are nowadays available for composite materials such as mechanical abrasion, plasma, grit-blasting and solvent etching, while metallic substrates often require anodizing methods. All these techniques favour adhesion by controlling one or more surface parameters: surface roughness, surface energy, chemical composition, surface cleaning….



Whatever the surface treatment used, adhesion performance improvement aims (i) enhancing mechanical strength and (ii) making the failure mode fully cohesive inside the adhesive material layer or inside the composite material by itself.



The presentation highlights results of experiments performed on both well-established and innovative methods applied to composite and metallic aeronautic substrates. Different treatments are discussed such as tool preparation, peel ply, laser excimer and also environmentally friendly anodizing and coupling agents.


M. Masudul Hassan 1*, M. Rabiul Islam2 and Mubarak A. Khan3



1) Technical University of Berlin, Polymertechnik/Polymerphysik, Fasanenstr. 90, D- 0623 Berlin, GERMANY



2) Department of Chemistry; Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, BANGLADESH



3) Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3787, Dhaka-1000, BANGLADESH



Effect of Radiation on Surface Modification of Cellulose with Acrylamide



Pure cellulose (Whatman 41 filter paper) was grafted under in situ ultraviolet (UV) radiation with acrylamide (AM) at optimized system (30% AM and 60 minute irradiation) and obtained enhanced tensile properties like tensile strength (TS = 120%) and elongation at break (Eb = 180%) with 25% polymer loading. In order to improve the tensile properties, cellulose has pretreated under UV and gamma radiation at different radiation intensities and subjected to graft with 30% AM under in situ UV radiation. Though the gamma pretreated grafted samples show higher polymer loading (PL=31%) but UV pretreated grafted samples show better enhancement of tensile properties (PL=28%, TS=170%, Eb = 240%). Cellulose was also pretreated by alkali (5% NaOH) along with UV and gamma radiation with different intensities and grafted with AM under UV radiation. Among the treatments, the alkali +UV irradiated grafted sample showed the best mechanical performance (TS =200%, Eb=250%) with 30% polymer loading.



Keywords: Pure cellulose, UV radiation, gamma radiation, grafting, tensile properties.



*Correspondence: Dr. M. Masudul Hassan , E-mail: msdhasan@yahoo.com


M.Ignat1, C. Malhaire2, G. Ravel3 and E. Quesnel3



1) SIMAP INP Grenoble, FRANCE

2) LPM INSA Lyon, FRANCE

3) LITEN CEA, Grenoble FRANCE



Cracking and Deadhesion of Thin Metal Films on Mechanically Modified Polymer Surfaces



The cracking and deadhesion of thin metal films deposited on polymers is analysed from the results obtained by in-situ tensile experiments. The critical parameters (stress, strain) launching the above mentioned damage mechanisms are strongly dependent on the polymer substrate surface modification prior to the thin film deposition. As a matter of fact the substrate surfaces were mechanically grinded at different levels. From the results and observations which were obtained from in-situ tensile tests, cracking with or without debonding is discussed in relation to the redistribution of the stresses in the film during the damage process.


Norihiro Inagaki; Shizuoka University, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, 1-37-7 Kamoe, Hamamatsu 432-8023, JAPAN



Plasma Surface Modification of Aromatic Polyester Films for Copper Metallization -Dynamic Surface Properties of Plasma-Modified Films-



For copper metallization of aromatic polyester film surfaces, surface modification of the film surfaces was investigated and what was a main factor to improve the adhesion of copper metal/aromatic polyester film was discussed. The film surfaces were modified with plasma such as Ar, O2, N2, and NH3 plasma to form functional groups on the surfaces, and then were heated near glass temperature of the films to re-constitute the functional groups at the topmost layer of the plasma-modified films. Peel strength of copper metal/aromatic polyester film was strongly related to how the plasma-modified film surfaces were heated as well as what plasma was used for the modification of the film surfaces. When the plasma-modified film surfaces were contacted with glass plate and heated near glass temperature (250şC), the peel strength increased 1.7 times higher. On the other hand, when the plasma-modified film surfaces were heated at 250C in air (the film surface contacted to air), no increase in the peel strength was observed. This comparison means that some interaction between functional groups and copper metal is one of important factors for improvement of the adhesion.


E. T. Kang; Dept. of Chemical Engineering, National University of Singapore

Kent Ridge, SINGAPORE 119260



Modification of Polymers via Surface-Initiate Living Radical Polymerizations



(Abstract not yet available)


Takaomi Kobayashi; Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka Univeristy of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, JAPAN



Ozone Modification on Surface of Polystyrene Derivatives

Surface modification of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene derivatives with different chemical structure was performed by thermal-ozone (O3) treatment to improve their surface properties. During the thin film was exposed into dried O3 gas with 3000 ppm at different temperatures, transmitted FT-IR spectra were measured simultaneously in the O3 atmosphere. Even though absorption band assigned to C=O stretching appeared near 1720 cm-1, the O3 treatment showed difference in the appearance of the C=O band on the each surface. In PS, the O3 oxidation proceeded effectively regardless of temperature. However, the introduction of methyl group on main chain resulted in less O3 reactivity relative to PS and PS with methyl group on the phenyl ring. Furthermore, contact angle measurements showed that the hydrophilic surface of PE and PS derivatives was improved by the thermal-O3 treatment, although the O3 reactivity was low in the PS with methyl group on the main chain.


Graham J Leggett; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF, UK



Measuring Molecular Organisation at the Nanometre Scale: Surface Analysis by Friction Force Microscopy



The characterisation of surface composition and molecular organisation at the nanometre scale remains one of the outstanding challenges in surface analysis. We have been interested in exploring the capabilities of friction force microscopy (FFM) for addressing this problem. In FFM, lateral deflections of an AFM cantilever are measured and used to map surface frictional characteristics. We have been exploring the use of FFM for the quantitative measurement of surface composition. We have investigated the contact mechanics underpinning FFM, and discovered that the nature of the medium in which the measurement is made has a profound influence. In media with small dielectric constants, single asperity contact mechanics models apply, while in media with larger dielectric constants (for example, ethanol), Amontons' law applies. Using Amontons' law it is possible to derive friction coefficients that reflect the nanoscopic composition of the material. This will be illustrated by describing work carried out on model heterogeneous materials (mixed self-assembled monolayers). The use of FFM to measure the kinetics of surface chemical reactions will be described, and alternative approaches to the quantification of data presented. Applications of the technique to quantitative measurements of surface chemical modification in nanoscopic regions of surface will be illustrated, both for model monolayer materials and for polymeric systems.


Zheng CAO1, Jingxin LEI1 , Jun GAO2 and Qiman LI1



1) State Key Lab. Of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute;



2) School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, CHINA



Surface Modification of Polyolefine via A Novel Non-vapor and Non-liquid Photografting Method



Photografting is one of the more favored surface modification methods. Photografting method is generally employed in two different ways: 1) vapor phase method, in which the initiator and the monomer are transported via the vapor phase to the substrate. 2) liquid phase method, in which the initiator and the monomer in solution are transported via the liquid phase to the substrate during grafting. In the vapor phase method, the monomers can be graft-copolymerized onto the substrate with a high conversion. The reaction time to reach a certain graft degree, however, is quite long. On the other hand, in the liquid phase method, the monomer conversion to grafted chains is low, and most monomers form homopolymers although the reaction time can be shorter as compared to the vapor method.



In the present work we have developed a non-vapor and non-liquid phase photografting method to prepare surface functionalized polyolefine with both high monomer graft conversion and short reaction time at the same time was developed. After photografting via this method, the adhesion properties were greatly improved.


Wang Ke1, Liang Hong1,2,*, Zhao-Lin Liu2



1) Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK E5 02-02, 4 Engineering Drive 4, SINGAPORE 117576



2) Institute of Materials Research & Engineering 3 Research Link, SINGAPORE 117602



Developing a Substantially Thin Ni/P Layer on the Surface of Silicone Elastomer



Depositing a metallic thin film on the surface of silicone elastomer substrate, in particular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), by electroless plating means is an appealing research topic since PDMS is a well-known biomedical material and surface metallization on it would help in vivo positioning and magnetic field shielding, for instance. The main challenging to the deposition of a thin metallic film, which must stick strongly to the substrate, on PDMS in an aquatic system lies in the hydrophobic nature of PDMS. In this paper, two methods are attempted to implement a hydrophilic super surface on silicone elastomer. In the first approach, a particular surfactant compound was managed to implant in the surface matrix of substrate via solution impregnation and in-situ UV cross-linking treatment. The installation of surface hydrophilic property was assessed by the measurements of contact angle and FT-IR spectroscopy. In the second way, we are working on coating the substrate with a layer of silicone gel comprising a pre-polymer of PDMS, a surfactant and a curing agent. After curing of the coated layer and subsequent soaking of it in water, a hydrophilic surface is then generated. On the hydrophilic-modified PDMS electroless nickel plating is able to proceed, and with monitoring the plating conditions, a thin Ni/P sheet is formed. The properties of the Ni-P deposit, such as structure, morphology and adhesion, are characterized and investigated.


W. G. Mahy; Akzo Nobel Chemicals Research & Technology, THE NETHERLANDS



Increasing the Performance of Polymer-Based Applications by Interphase Modification: Relevance of Microanalysis



High-performance polymer-based materials are increasingly part of our surroundings, due to advances in the development of new, e.g. nanotechnology designed, products and a better understanding of structure-performance relationships in complex materials. This understanding is mainly based on the advances in new microspectroscopical instrumentation, allowing the analysis of materials and notably interphase regions with high spatial and spectroscopical resolution. The multi-analytical characterization of e.g. composite interfaces involves fast mining of large datasets derived from spectroscopic multidimensional "images". This mining requires advanced software representation algorithms, such as multivariate spectroscopic image analysis, which provides a powerful tool in "nano-analytics". This will be shown at the hand of a number of real life products and materials.


S. Manolache, H. Jiang and F. S. Denes; Center for Plasma-Aided Manufacturing, University of Wisconsin, 1410 Engineering Drive #101, Madison WI 53706-1608



Chemical Versus Physical Nanotopography Generation into Polymer Surfaces Induced by Cold Plasma



Cold plasma enhanced crosslinking and/or functional group modification of polymer surface was used to induce nanotopography generation on various substrates, including polyethylene, polypropylene, poly(methyl acrylate), vinyl and neoprene rubbers. Argon and hydrogen plasmas were successfully used for surface treatment of polymers. In a typical experiment polymeric samples were exposed to plasma using an inductively coupled, PlasmaTherm Series 790 Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System (Unaxis USA Inc, St. Petersburg, FL) under the following parameter space: gas flow rate 1 - 10 sccm; pressure 10 - 100 mTorr; power 200 W; bias voltage 10 - 100 V; substrate temperature 25°C. AFM and SEM analysis reveal the presence of nanotopography on the treated surfaces that are composed of island-type structures at nanoscale (50 - 500 nm) and/or wavy features at larger scale (microns range). SigmaScan Pro 5 was used for quantification of nanofeatures generated on the surface and Design Expert 7 was chosen for programming of experiments and statistical evaluation of factor influence. ESCA and pyrolysis - GC/MS evaluations show the plasma-induced chemical structure changes. The island-type surface topographies of the layers have potentially applications in the area of biomolecule immobilization, in the hard layer on advanced material engineering, in the advanced biosensors and robust anti-fouling surfaces.


E. Metwalli, V. Körstgens and P. Müller-Buschbaum; Physik-Department, TU München, LS E13, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85747 Garching, Germany



Evaluation of the Interfacial Adhesion Between a Model Pressure

Sensitive Adhesive and Chemically Modified Surfaces Using the Probe Tack Method



Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) play an important role as materials in many industrial applications as well as in everyday life. The adhesive performance is depending on the properties of the solid surface that come in contact. Our study aims to investigate the adhesion of a model system based on the triblock copolymer styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and a tackifier resin to various chemically modified solid surfaces. This will help to understand the effect the chemical/physical surface properties at the interface on the adhesion performance. The probe tack method apparatus allows for the recording of the force-distance curve and the microscopic observation of the debonding at the contact surface between glass probe and PSA. Different glass probe surfaces are modified using acid cleaning, base cleaning, microstructured siloxane layer, and other organic coatings. The modified surfaces are probed prior to the mechanical investigation using AFM, optical spectroscopy and ellipsometry to gather information on the surface roughness and morphology. The influence of these treatments on the confined flow behaviour of polystyrene has been shown recently [1]. The adhesion performance of these modified surfaces to our model PSA will be discussed in this work.



[1] E. Bauer, E. Maurer, T. Mehaddene, S. V. Roth, P. Müller-Buschbaum, Macromolecules 39, 5087-5094 (2006)


J. Friedrich, R. Mix and J. Falkenhagen; Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und Prufung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin, GERMANY



Deposition and Characterization of Plasma Copolymerized Allyl Alcohol Adhesion Promoting Polymer Layers



The pulsed plasma was used to initiate a chemical copolymerisation of allyl alcohol and styrene. By this way the concentration of OH groups at the surface of the copolymer layer could be adjusted from 0 (styrene homopolymerization) to 31 OH groups/100 C atoms (allyl alcohol homopolymerization). The copolymerization kinetics corresponds to that of a pure chemical (radical) copolymerization. Therefore, the different (chemical) "copolymerization parameters" of styrene and allyl alcohol influence the copolymer composition strongly. Thus, the variation of OH group density is only possible in a small range of comonomer ratio, otherwise, styrene homopolymerization dominates.


Masukuni Mori; Mori Consultant Engineering office 36-1 Shinmeikuruwa Kaimei Ichinomiya,Aichi 494-0001 JAPAN



What Effects does Ar-Plasma Irradiation Lead to in Dyeing Properties as well as Antifelting Properties of Wool Fibers?



The dyeing properties of Argon (Ar)plasma treated wool were studied using the six classes of dyestuffs, i.e., acid, acid metal complex, acid mordant, reactive, basic and disperse dyes. Ar-plasma treatment greatly improved the color yield and levelness, together with the decrease of tippy dyeing. A condition in the plasma treatment enhanced not only the color yield but also the anti-felting performance, which is due to high hydrophilic effect. The relationship between the improvement of dyeing properties by the plasma treatment and the chemical structure of the dyes was also examined. In the case of the acid dyes, the effect of plasma treatment on color yield was more significant for the milling type dyes with large molecular weight than the leveling type dye with low molecular weight. For the acid metal complex dyes, the hydrophilic groups in the dye molecules did not influence the color yield. Although, in the case of the acid mordant dyes with small molecular weight, the similar effect on color yield to that of the leveling type acid dyes was expected, the effect was almost the same as that of the milling type acid dyes with high molecular weight. The SOX groups should be generated on the surface of wool by plasma treatment, but any effects on color yield for the basic dyes could hardly be observed. Furthermore, the hot water and rubbing fastness were improved by Ar-plasma treatment.


A. Narladkar, E. Balnois, G. Vignaud and Y. Grohens; Laboratoire Polymères, Propriétés aux Interfaces et Composites (L2PIC),

Université de Bretagne Sud, BP 92116, 56321 Lorient Cedex, FRANCE



Aggregation and Pattering in Thin Films of PLA and Their Stereocomplex: From Conformation to Glass Transition



Polymer thin films are widely used in many different applications such as manufacture of electronic devices to the production of paper, in medical applications and in packaging. Because of the use of polymer thin films in variety of applications; there has been significant amount of interest in recent years in the physical properties of polymer films. Among the physical properties, glass transition temperature is a key parameter for characterizing a polymer, which affects every aspect of its properties as an engineering material. The results reported on Tg change in thin films shows large deviation compared with that of bulk Tg. For thin polymer films, the measured Tg shows deviation from the bulk value [1,2].



Recently Bliznyuk et al. [3] measured surface glass transition temperature on polystyrene films by force-distance measurements using scanning force microscopy by plotting adhesion forces against temperature. Here in our present work we are focusing on the adhesion interaction on the force distance curves on polylactic acid thin film. Glass transition dynamics and structural relaxation behaviour in PLLA have been investigated using different techniques including dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) [4,5]. PLLA film surface restructuring and conformational changes on the surface upon solvent treatment observed by Six et al. [6]. In our recent publication [7] we have observed the conformational changes of PLLA, PDLA and their blend of individual chains with very low concentrations on different surfaces such as mica, activated silicon wafer, silicon wafer and HOPG from semi rigid macromolecules to globular structures depending on the polarity of the surfaces and polarity of the solvents.



The objective of this work is therefore, try to investigate the thermal properties (Tg) of PLLA, PDLA film and PLLA:PDLA blended film using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance curves (adhesion force Vs temperature) and ellipsometry.



References:

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3. V.N. Bliznyuk, H.E. Assender, G.A.D. Briggs, Macromolecules, 35, (2002), 6613.

4. J.F. Mano, J.L. Gomez Ribelles, N.M. Alves, M. S. Sanchez, Polymer, 46 (2005), 8258.

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Andrew Nelson; ANSTO, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW 2234, AUSTRAILIA



The Role of Reflectometry Techniques in Examining Thin Polymer Film Compositions



(Abstract not yet available)


C. Lew1, F. Chowdhury2, M. V. Hosur2, A. N. Netravali1



1) Dept. of Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY



2) Dept. of Aerospace Science Engineering, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL



The Effect of Silica (SiO2) Nanoparticle and Ethylene/Ammonia Plasma on the Carbon Fiber/NanoEpoxy Interfacial Shear Strength



Nanoparticle dispersions are known to enhance the mechanical properties of a variety of polymers and resins. In the present work, we characterized the effect of silica (SiO2) nanoparticle loading (0-2%) on the mechanical properties of the epoxy resin. Further the carbon fibers were treated with ethylene/ammonia plasma polymer coating and the effect of the treatment on carbon fiber/nanoepoxy interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was characterized. Single fiber composite (SFC) tests were performed to determine the fiber/resin IFSS. Tensile tests on pure epoxy resin specimens performed to quantify mechanical property changes with silica content indicated that up to 2% SiO2 nanoparticle loading had little effect on the mechanical properties. For untreated carbon fibers, the IFSS was comparable for all epoxy resins. With ethylene/ammonia plasma treated fibers, specimens exhibited a substantial increase in IFSS by 2-3 times, increasing with the SiO2 loading. The highest IFSS value obtained was 150 MPa for plasma treated fibers and epoxy resin with 2% silica nanoparticle loading. The results suggest that the fiber/epoxy interface is not affected by the incorporation of up to 2% silica nanoparticles for untreated fibers. Furthermore, the plasma treatment is an effective method of further improving and controlling fiber/resin adhesion.


Toshio Ogawa1, Yuusuke Kimoto1, Tohru Kimura2 and Atsuhiro Ishikawa2



1) Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ohgigaoka 7-1, Nonoichi, Ishikawa, 921-8501, JAPAN



2) Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 1150 Goshomiya, Shimodate-shi, Ibaraki, 308-8524, JAPAN



Surface Modification of Polypropylene by Flame Treatment with Silicon Compound



Flame treatment was carried out for polypropylene. An organic silicon compound was added in the flowing air of a gas burner. After the compound was resolved and oxidized in flame, some type of silicon compound was adhered on the polypropylene surface. This fact was confirmed by XPS analysis. Further, the hydroxyl group content on the surface increased markedly as compared with that by a usual flame treatment. Consequently the adhesive properties of polypropylene were improved considerably.


P. R. Norton1, Natasha Patrito1, Jessica McLachlan1*, Sarah Faria1, Seyed

Tadayyon1, Claire McCague2 and Nils O. Petersen3



1) Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON. CANADA



2) Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, CANADA



3) National Institute of Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA



Novel Techniques for Pdms Surface Modification: Microscale Biocompatible Patterning and Robust Bonding



A simple, novel technique for the surface modification of

poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) has been developed. The method can produce

patterned biocompatible arrays of controlled size, shape, pitch and

symmetry on which cells can be grown confluently. These arrays which are

compatible with confocal fluorescence microscopies, can be incorporated

into microfluidic devices for studies on live cells. An additional and

unexpected benefit of the surface modification is the possibility of the

direct optical imaging of the strains created by adherent cells.



The surface modification technique can also be used to produce

bonds between PDMS and itself, and between PDMS and glass which are

stronger than PDMS; tensile and burst tests lead to rupture in the PDMS and

not at the interface.


K. Opwis, T. Meyer-Gall, T. Textor, T. Bahners, and E. Schollmeyer

Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e. V., Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld, GERMANY



Textile Catalysts - Immobilization of Organometallic Calalysts on Fibers



(Abstract not yet available)


M. Charbonnier1, F. Gaillard2 and M. Romand1;



1) Université de Lyon, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, UMR-CNRS # 5180, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, FRANCE



2) Ircelyon, UMR-CNRS # 5256, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, FRANCE



Compared Catalytic Activity and Subsequent Electroless Metallization of Polymer Surfaces Treated by NH3 and N2 Plasma



Electroless plating of insulating substrates (polymers and composite materials as well as glasses and ceramics) usually requires, prior to metal deposition, to render the sample surface catalytically active. In previous works (1, 2) we have shown that NH3 or N2 plasma-induced surface modifications of polymer substrates are effective to graft nitrogen-containing functionalities on which the catalytic species (Pd+2 moieties) can be further attached via the sample immersion in an acidic PdCl2 solution. However, it is also observed that differences in catalysis efficiency occur, depending on the nature of the nitrogen-containing gas used for the plasma treatment. In particular, a higher surface concentration in chemisorbed Pd+2 is generally shown in the case of NH3 plasma-treated samples, despite a less surface concentration in grafted nitrogen in comparison with what is obtained in similar experimental conditions for N2 plasma-treated samples. This means that the chemical nature of the grafted nitrogen-containing groups plays a key role in the chemisorption of the Pd+2 species, i.e., in fine, on the quality of the interface/interphase between the electrolessly-deposited metal (generally Ni or Cu) and the polymer substrate. In the present work, the surface functionalities were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR/IRRAS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD).In these two last cases, the nitrogen-containing polymer surfaces were simulated via NH3 or N2 plasma treatment of a-C:H thin films PACVD-deposited on silicon wafers or polished stainless steel plates. The localization of the catalytic Pd-based sites is also studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In summary, the grafting of amino groups allows us to improve the metal deposition process.





(1) - M. Romand, M. Charbonnier and Y. Goepfert; "Plasma and VUV Pretreatments of Polymer Surfaces for Adhesion Enhancement of Electrolessly Deposited Ni or Cu Films" In: Metallization of Polymers 2, E. SACHER (Ed.), Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, 2002, pp. 191-205.

(2) - M. Charbonnier, Y. Goepfert and M. Romand; " New developments in the adhesion promotion of electroless Ni or Cu films on polyimide substrates" In: Polyimides and Other High Temperature Polymers, K. L. Mittal (Ed.), VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2003, pp. 289-314.


J. Reece Roth; Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engr., 409 Ferris Hall,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100



Polymer Surface Modification with a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP)



(Abstract not yet available)


Dae Up Ahn and Erol Sancaktar; Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-0301



Control of Block Copolymer Cylinder Orientation by Homopolymer Blending



We have prepared well-aligned 3-dimensional block copolymer nano-cylinders over the entire sample area and thickness without any external field application. Self-assembled and size-controllable nano-cylinders with perpendicular and hexagonal alignments have been readily achieved by thermodynamic controls over incompatibility between the block components, and further precise hexagonal cylinder arrays have been also accomplished by kinetic controls over diffusive molecular mobility of block copolymer microdomains. Since those two controls have been achieved by simple blending of minority homopolymer, the intrinsic advantages of block copolymer nanopatterning, such as fast and spontaneous 3-dimensional nanopatterning with high stability and reproducibility, have been completely preserved in this fabrication strategy. Thus, we conclude that the simple blending of block copolymer with its homopolymer of an appropriate molecular weight is one of the most practical methods for the fabrication of low-cost and high-throughput nanostructured block copolymer materials with highly ordered 3-dimensional nanopatterns.


Dae Up Ahn and Erol Sancaktar; Department of Polymer Engineering

The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-0301



Direct Fabrication of High Density Polymer or Silicon Nano-Dots by Excimer Laser Irradiation on Block Copolymer Masks



We report easy and fast fabrication methods to prepare densely packed polymer or silicon nano-dots using one-step excimer laser irradiation on cylindrically nanopatterned block copolymer materials, without any additional selective etching steps before a non-selective etching process. Together with preferential etching in more ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive block component, non-selective removal of all block components, reducing the overall sample thickness and finally transferring the nanopatterns in block copolymer masks to the inorganic silicon substrate, was also observed during the excimer laser irradiation with an appropriate laser intensity. Surface melt flows of block components, which severely undermine the initial orders of nanopatterns in a block copolymer mask, were observed at the laser intensity near the ablation threshold of less UV-sensitive component. Thus, in order to obtain mask image-like topographic nanopatterns on the surface of target materials, the intensity of excimer laser radiation should be sufficiently lower than the ablation threshold of less UV-sensitive component as long as the intensity was higher than that of more UV-sensitive component.


K. Schröder1, B. Busse2, H. Steffen1, A. Ohl1, A. Quade1, K.-D. Weltmann1



1) Institute of Low-Temperature Plasma Physics (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 2, 17489 Greifswald, GERMANY



2) Zell-kontakt GmbH, Industriestraße 3, 37 176 Nörten-Hardenberg, GERMANY



Plasma-Induced Generation of Cell-Adhesive and Cell-Repulsive Polymer Surfaces for Cell-based RNA Arrays



The control of cell adhesion, differentiation, morphology, proliferation and migration plays an important role for cell-based assays in biomedical and pharmaceutical analytic and research. The miniaturization of consumables applied in high throughput screening (HTS) enables the reduction of analyte volume and detection area by multi-spot arrays defined by chemical microstructures. Due to their reliability and potential for integration in industrial manufacturing processes, gas-discharge plasmas are advantageous for the micro patterning of the polymer surfaces as well as to influence surface chemistry controlling cell behaviour.

Typical plastics for disposables like polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP) or cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) do not support cell adhesion. The equipment of surfaces with chemical functional groups is necessary to receive the required high cell density and cell-typical behaviour. Here, we concentrate on microwave plasmas for surface amino functionalization and deposition of thin plasma polymer layers. On the other hand, cell-repulsive areas have to be created to prevent the cross-talk between different spots. Fluorinated plasma polymer layers have been applied to reduce wettability and to avoid cell growth.

Modified polymer surfaces were analyzed with imaging XPS and contact angle measurements to understand cell-surface interactions.

The applicability of the micro patterning processes is exemplified by a cell-based array for reverse siRNA transfection.


Jay J. Senkevich1, Carissa S. Jones1 and Young-Soon Kim2



1) Brewer Science Inc., 2401 Brewer Dr., Rolla, MO 65401 USA



2) Thin Film Technology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756, REPUBLIC OF KOREA



Direct Electroless Metallization of a CVD Polymer Film Without a Catalytic Layer



Typically, with either an electrolytic or electroless deposit, a metallic conducting or catalytic layer is needed. To deposit an electroless metal film on a polymeric surface, the polymer's surfaces is often modified to immobilize a palladium catalyst. In either case, direct metallization is not possible without a continuous conducting or catalytic layer. We report here on the incorporation of functional groups with a chemical vapor depositable polymer film that allows for the direct growth of transition metals. The interface bonding is a robust metallorganic bond unlike most surface modification techniques that yield covalent/ionic bonds with transition metals. The polymer, poly(ethynyl-p-xylylene)-co-poly(p-xylylene), also called parylene X, is deposited at room temperature on the parylene platform. This platform allows for conformal ultra-thin deposits from ~50 Å to microns. The polymer process will be presented along with ruthenium and copper electroless chemistry.


Michael S. Silverstein; Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Insitute of Technology, Haifa 32000, ISRAEL



Surface Modification of Low-k Dielectrics



Post-deposition processing of the new generation of low dielectric constant materials, low-k materials, will most likely include plasma exposure, which has been shown to produce extensive damage and a significant deterioration in the dielectric constant. This talk will describe the effects of plasma exposure on organo-silicon materials such as the spin-on methyl silsesquioxane and commercial chemical vapor deposition SiCOH films. The films were exposed to a variety of plasmas including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, and carbon tetrafluoride. The effects of the plasmas on surface chemistry, surface structure, surface energy, and effective k were characterized. In general, exposure to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and hydrogen plasmas, followed by exposure to the atmosphere, yielded similar results for most low-k materials. The concentration of carbon on the surface decreased while that of oxygen increased. Carbon was bound exclusively to silicon in unmodified films, while about 20% of the carbon was bound to oxygen following plasma exposure. There were relatively small increases in the dispersive components of surface tension and relatively large increases in the polar components of surface tension. These changes were correlated to the changes in effective k.


Frank Simon; Institute of Polymer Research, Hohe Straße 6, D-01069 Dresden, GERMANY



Super-hydrophobic Aluminium Surfaces



(Abstract not yet available)


Grigoriy Kyryk and Alexander Stadnick; Ukrrosmetall Concern, 6 Kursky Avenue, Sumy, UKRAINE 40020

E - mail: astadnick@rambler.ru



Reception of Metal Coverings on Polymeric Materials By Methods of Conductors Electric Explosion



The electroexplosive technology of metal covering that can be used for making of protective, decorative, wearproof, electroconductive, high adhesive coverings on polymeric materials is developed. During electric explosion of conductors it is possible to mark out the separate interconnected stages and processes:



- magnetic field making;

- conductor heating;

- thermoionic emission from the conductor surface;

- radiation in the infra-red and optical range;

- conductor fusion;

- conductor fused part temperature rising;

- evaporation, delamination, plasma formation;

- expansion of the volume occupied with the fused conductor,

intensive plasma formation, electromagnetic radiation and explosion,

shock waves generation;

- ionization, plasma influence on a polymeric materials

surface, explosive chamber material.



Electric explosion of conductors from various materials was fulfilled by means of a condenser battery with a general energy 120 êJ. The battery of impulsive condensers was charged from a source to a setting value of voltage U0. The battery was closed on a researched conductor: Cu, Ni, Al by means of an arrester. Plasma influence on a polymer is accompanied by etching of its surface, realization of plasma polymerization from particles of thermal destruction, change of the structure and functional groups on the surface. Plasma modification of the polymer surface promotes a growth of adhesion. The maximal value of adhesion is observed at films received by the electroexplosive method. Interaction of the polymer with the plasma that contains oxygen is accompanied by formation of polar groups in a superficial layer of polymers. It promotes a growth of the superficial energy of polymeric matrix, so also adhesions. A certain contribution is given also by a metal drop fraction.


M. Krysak1, A. Jayasekar1, B. Parekh1, T. Debies2, K. S. V. Santhanam1, R. A. DiLeo3, B. J. Landi3, R. P. Raffaelle3 and G. A. Takacs1



1) Department of Chemistry, Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, 14623



2) Xerox Corporation, Webster, NY 14580



3) NanoPower Research Labs, RIT, Rochester, NY, 14623.



Gas-Phase Surface Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with UV Photo-oxidation



For bulk processing of carbon nanotubes, an important first step in adhesion to the nanotubes is often liquid-phase functionalization through chemical oxidation with acids (e.g., nitric and sulfuric), peroxides and/or potassium permanganate. In comparison, gas-phase photo-oxidation can represent an alternative to introduce oxygenated functional groups on the surfaces of multi-walled (MWNT) and single-walled (SWNT) carbon nanotubes without the generation of liquid waste. In the present study, UV (253.7 and 184.9 nm) photo-oxidation of MWNT paper and SWNT powder were investigated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) detection of the carbon and oxygen-containing functional groups in the top 2-5 nm of the sample's surface. The current results will be compared to our previous experiments using MWNT powder [1] and SWNT paper [2]. One general trend is that SWNTs produce higher levels of oxidation with shorter treatment times than MWNTs.



[1] B. Parekh, T. Debies, P. Knight, K.S.V. Santhanam and G. A. Takacs, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol., 20(16), 1833-1846 (2006).



[2] B. Parekh, T. Debies, C. M. Evans, B. J. Landi, R. P. Raffaelle and G. A. Takacs, Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 887 (Degradation Processes in Nanostructured Materials), 3-8 (2006).


S. Temmel1, Ch. Buchgraber1, W. Kern2



1) Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, A-8700 Leoben, AUSTRIA

2) Graz University of Technology, Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organic Materials, A-8010 Graz, AUSTRIA



Improvement of Surface Properties of Polymers Modified by Photo-induced Processes



In this paper we focus on surface properties of polymers functionalized by UV modification techniques. With regard to possible industrial applications, the exposure of polymers to UV light in the presence of an UV sensitive gas is an easy and effective method to increase the surface tension of plastics. Experiences of surface functionalization of polyethylene have been performed with a mixture of sulfur dioxide/air using UV irradiation (introduction of acid groups: -SO3H). In a similar fashion the introduction of basic groups (NH2 groups) onto polyethylene surfaces was accomplished by an irradiation process with a VUV light source (Xe-excimer lamp) in the presence of ammonia. Both modification techniques increased the wettability of the polyolefin and caused changes in electrochemical effects.



In addition polybutadiene was taken as model compound for UV induced surface modification using phosphorus tribromide as UV sensitive reagent. In this process phosphorus dibromide is covalently attached to the polymer surface. A subsequent hydrolysis step was carried out to obtain an organic derivative of phosphonous acid, which is known to improve the biocompatibility in bone prosthesis due to advanced hydroxyapatite formation. To evaluate the degree of modification of polybutadiene, studies in wettability, surface tension, streaming potential and XPS were performed.


Carel Jan van Oss; Department of Microbiology and Immunology

School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, South Campus, Buffalo, New York, NY 14214-3000

E-mail: cjvanoss@buffalo.edu



Surface Properties of Bacteria, Human Cells And Solid Substrata - Which Factors Cause Adhesion or Non-Adhesion to Prevail



The surface properties of bacteria, human cells and other particles or substrata are the most important ones one can measure if one aims at determining their mutual attachment (attraction) or detachment (repulsion), usually under conditions where such entities are immersed in water. The three relevant non-covalent interaction forces are:



1) Electrodynamic or van der Waals forces, on a macroscopic scale called Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) forces.

2) Polar or Lewis acid-base (AB), or electron-accepting/electron-donating interactions. (LW and AB interaction energies are measured together, via contact angle determinations).



3) Electrical double layer interaction forces, measured by means of one of the electrokinetic methods; most commonly via electrophoresis.



All three forces (or free energies) are best expressed as a function of distance between the interacting entities, using the Extended DLVO ( XDLVO) approach, that is, the classical DLVO theory comprising LW and EL energies, PLUS the polar, AB energies (indispensable for polar interactions and for all interactions taking place in water).

Also discussed are:



1) The influence of the radius of curvature of cells or particles when using the XDLVO approach.



2) A specific cell-cell repulsion versus specific cell-cell attraction, by means of surface processes of a small radius of curvature.



3) The influence of the cluster size of water in the action at a distance of particles or cells when immersed in water.



4) The influence of temperature on the free energy of interaction between polar entities when immersed in water.

Furthermore discussed are some of the surface properties promoting attraction, or repulsion, under in vivo conditions, among entities immersed in water.


Terrence Vargo, David MacRae, and Derrick Lucey; Integument Technologies, Inc., 72 Pearce Avenue, Tonawanda, NY 14150



Plasma Surface Modification Meets Nanotechnology



The ability to modify base polymeric materials plays an important role in the multi-varied field of technologically important materials especially in the design of interfaces that come in direct contact with adhesives, coatings, biologicals, etc. For example, interface engineering is often required to provide active as well as benign interfaces that can interact with a variety of specific materials.



Integument has developed unique plasma and nano-infusion technologies that together can impart almost any chemistry within or onto the surfaces of most polymeric materials used in various materials designs.



Our team will present a patented nanoinfusion process that allows one to grow various nanoscale interpenetrating networks of metals, metal oxides, and organic macromolecules into the free volume of most polymers relevant to interfacial material designs. In conjunction with our unique plasma treatments, nanoinfusion technology can be coupled to controllably incorporate stable molecular skins on polymer interfaces that can effectively provide a variety of surface and bulk characteristics such as:



1. Selective bonding or adhesion

2. Biological passivation

3. Radiation blockers absorbers

4. Thin flexible films capable of blocking laser radiation used in surgical procedures

5. Active dyes or recognition elements

6. Long term antimicrobial activity that is self regenerating

7. Abrasion resistant surfaces having unique tribological characteristics


T.Tanaka1, K.Vutova2, G.Mladenov2, T.Takagi1



1) Department of Electronics and Photonic Systems Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 2-1-1, Miyake, Saiki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193, JAPAN



2) Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shosse, 1784 Sofia, BULGARIA



Surface Modification of Plastic Films by Charged Particles



The plasma-based ion implantation technique was applied as a polymer surface modification method. Poly(ethylene terepthalate) (PET) films were treated by ions, extracted from self-ignited plasma in Ar, N2 and C2H2 rare gases, filling a technology vacuum chamber (at pressure of few Pa). A pulsed negative voltage of 10 kV magnitudes was applied (at aprox.10ms pulse width, 800-900 pulses per second during 120 seconds) to an isolated substrate on which the studied polymer film was situated.

Using our computer code TRIM-MV for simulation of the accelerated ion transport through polymers, the penetration depths of bombarding ions in PET films were calculated. The energy distribution of extracted ions were assumed as DN/N(E)~ N.E-2 (from 2 keV to energy at Voltage of the negative extracting pulse). The calculated depth distributions of Ar+ and N+ ions were compared with created experimental data by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).



Results are used for discussion some changes of electrical and optical properties as well as the structure of modified films at application of plasma-based ion implantation technique.


K.-D. Weltmann, J. Ehlbeck, R. Brandenburg, T. V. Woedtke , U. Krohmann, M. Stieber, K. Rackow, E. Kindel and R. Foest; Institute of Low-Temperature Plasma Physics (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 2, 17489 Greifswald, GERMANY



Polymer Surface Decontamination of Heat-Sensitive Goods Using Low Temperature Plasma Technology



Advanced atmospheric plasma processes exhibit an enormous technological potential to control adhesion to polymeric surfaces. An overview of selective plasma sources is presented, which can be scaled from sub-mm range to large-area treatment. The applications are focussed on the antimicrobial treatment of selected, sensitive products, but surface refinement will be included.



Different power supplies and source geometries are used according to the specific requirements: An atmospheric microwave-driven plasma is implemented with spatial alteration. It is applied to disinfect interior surfaces of macroscopic hollow goods like for instance packaging. The fast in-line plasma treatment of PET bottles is presented as an example. These bottles can be decontaminated within several hundreds of a microsecond.

Another version is an RF-driven plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. It is applied to treat the outer surfaces of medical products, in particular catheters. This device is predestined for modularisation and can be adapted to nearly any complex 3-dimensional structure. The microbicidal activity of the jet is verified with the treatment of contaminated plastic strips. Micro organisms can be reduced by more than four orders of magnitude. Additionally, micro plasmas created this way are able to penetrate even in narrow gaps. Heat-sensitive goods with complex shaped surfaces can be treated for a wide variety of applications.


S. Wettmarshausen, G. Kühn, G. Hidde and J. F. Friedrich; Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), 12200 Berlin, GERMANY



joerg.friedrich@bam.de



Plasmabromination - the Selective Way to Produce Monotype Functionalized Polymer Surfaces





In contrast to other plasma modification processes of polymer surfaces the bromination is very selective and shows a high yield in C-Br groups. The most convenient bromination process was the use of bromoform preferred to elemental bromine, allyl bromide, vinyl bromide or tert-butylbromide. The bromoform process give yields in C-Br up to 40 C-Br or more with only 2-3% co-introduction of O-functionalities whereas allyl bromide results in yields of about 20 C-Br and more but in more than 10% oxygen-containing by-products.



C-Br groups serve as anchoring points for grafting of molecules, oligomers and pre-polymers of diole or diamine character.


Rory A. Wolf; Enercon Industries Corporation - Surface Treatment, Induction Sealing, & Power Supply Technologies, W140 N9572 Fountain Blvd., Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin 53051

Advances in Adhesion with CO2-Based Atmospheric Plasma Surface Modification



Use of gas and/or liquid-phase carbon dioxide (CO2) with atmospheric plasma discharge surface pretreatment technology can remove micron and submicron particulates and hydrocarbon-based contaminations on plastics and metals. The cleaning process is based upon the expansion of either liquid or gaseous carbon dioxide through an orifice. The paper provides an understanding of the basic removal mechanism and provides experimental evidence of remarkable adhesion improvements relative to a broad range of polymer applications in electrical, medical, and automotive manufacturing communities.





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